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PZT Materials

Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)`s attributes of producing an electrical charge when mechanically compressed or vibrating when an electrical charge is applied, make it very conducive for passive sensing, active transmitting and mechanical displacement applications.


We utilize two predominant types of piezoelectric materials, each providing a set of unique properties suitable for a range of applications. Two types of piezoelectric ceramics include High Power "Hard PZT" and high Sensitivity "Soft PZT".


High powder "Hard" Piezoelectric Materials are ceramics able to withstand high levels of electrical and mechanical stress and are particularly suited to high voltage and power applications.

High sensitivity "Soft" Piezoelectric Materials are particularly useful for sensing applications due to its high sensitivity and permittivity. As such these piezoelectric ceramics are frequently used in low power applications as transducers, receivers and generators.


PZT is a machinable ceramic and can be precision dimensioned into tubes, rings, discs, plates, and hemispheres. The PZT material is also versatile from a forming aspect as it can be net shaped by pressing, extruding and casting into these same shapes as well as complex components including, co-fired bimorphs and multilayer actuators. Sizes range from microns to centimeters. Electrode choices are extensive including fired silver, electroless nickel, sputtered or vacuum deposited Nickel-Chrome, Gold, Tin, Aluminium and Vanadium.


Hard PZT


High power or "hard PZT" ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation and mechanical stress. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power generators and transducers.


PZT-4 Series

This material range is ideally suited for ultrasonic cleaning, sonar, and other high power acoustic radiation applications. These materials are designated as PZT-4 series type materials and are capable of producing large mechanical drive amplitudes while maintaining low mechanical and dielectric losses. In addition, it can be used under both constant and repetitive conditions. Within this group of materials, Yuhai offer a complete range of three PZT-4 series material types with a variety of permitivity values, coupling, power handling and actuation properties.

PZT-8 Series

This material range is used in high power applications, even though its piezoelectric activity level is slightly lower than PZT-4 series types. With an extremely high mechanical quality factor and extremely low loss factor, PZT-8 series materials have the ultimate power handling capability. Within this group of materials, Yuhai offer a complete range of three PZT-8 series material types with a variety of permittivity values, coupling, power handling and actuation properties.


The typical value of "Hard PZT" ceramic performance

"Hard" PZT materials
Properties PZT-41 PZT-42 PZT-43 PZT-82 PCrN-4 PBaS-4
Dielectric Constant ɛTr3 1050 1250 1420 1100 1600 1900
Coupling factor KP 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.52 0.6 0.59
K31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.3 0.35 0.34
K33 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.57 0.68 0.68
Kt 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.4 0.45 0.49
Piezoelectric coefficient d31 10-12m/v -106 -124 -138 -100 -156 -160
d33 10-12m/v 260 280 300 240 350 380
g31 10-3vm/n -11.4 -11.2 -11 -10.3 -11 -9.5
g33 10-3vm/n 28 25.3 24 25 24.7 22.6
Frequency coefficients Np 2280 2200 2160 2280 2100 2200
N1 1671 1613 1583 1671 1539 1613
N3 1950 1900 1875 1950 1850 1850
Nt 2250 2200 2200 2300 2200 2200
Elastic compliance coefficient Se11 10-12m2/n 11.8 12.7 13.2 11.6 14 13.2
Machanical quality factor Qm 1000 800 600 1200 400 2200
Dielectric loss factor Tg δ % 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.5
Density ρ g/cm3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.5
Curie Temperature Tc °C 320 320 320 310 310 310
Young's modulus YE11 <109N/m2 85 79 76 86 71 76
Poison Ratio 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.33
























Soft PZT


High sensitivity or "soft" ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity, but under high drive conditions are susceptible to self heating beyond their operating temperature range . These materials are used in various pick-ups and sensors, low-power motor-type transducers, receivers, and low power generators.

PZT-5 Series

The PZT-5 series materials are all [soft". They range in Curie temperatures from 165°C to 350°C. All these materials have been optimized for charge constants or coupling coefficients for specific applications. PZT-5 series is often used as the receiver or generator element in hydrophones, accelerometers, and vibration sensors. PZT-5 Series is a lead zirconate titanate with a high sensitivity, permittivity, and time stability. PZT5H series is used in sensitive receivers and applications requiring fine movement control. It has been used in a wide range of applications from hydrophones to ink jet printers. PZT5H Series provides extremely high permittivity, coupling, and piezoelectric constant.



The typical value of "Soft PZT" ceramic performance

"Soft" PZT materials
Properties PSnN-5 PLiS-51 PZT-51 PZT-52 PZT-53 PZT-5H PZT-5X
Dielectric Constant ɛTr3 1600 2000 2200 2400 2600 3200 4500
Coupling factor KP 0.6 0.62 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.68 0.7
K31 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.4
K33 0.68 0.7 0.68 0.7 0.7 0.76 0.77
Kt 0.5 0.52 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.52 0.53
Piezoelectric coefficient d31 10-12m/v -170 -197 -186 -204 -227 -275 -300
d33 10-12m/v 400 450 500 520 550 620 750
g31 10-3vm/n -12 -11.1 -9.6 -9.8 -9.9 -9.7 -7.5
g33 10-3vm/n 28 25.4 25.6 24.5 23.9 22 18.8
Frequency coefficients Np 2000 1920 1980 1980 1960 1900 1960
N1 1466 1407 1451 1451 1437 1393 1437
N3 1825 1925 1900 1900 1755 1550 1800
Nt 2100 2100 2150 2150 2150 2100 2200
Elastic compliance coefficient Se11 10-12m2/n 16.6 18 16.7 17 17.4 18 19
Machanical quality factor Qm 85 80 80 75 75 70 65
Dielectric loss factor Tg δ % 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Density ρ g/cm3 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.5
Curie Temperature Tc °C 350 345 270 270 270 230 165
Young's modulus YE11 <109N/m2 60 56 60 59 57.5 56 53
Poison Ratio 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.39



The Co-Al Co-doped Barium Titanate Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics was successfully developed by Yuhai company through repeated experiments. By Researching the influence of Co-Al Co-doping on the structure and properties of Barium Titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics, the formulation and preparation technology of Barium Titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics were optimized. Yuhai`s BaTiO3 was prepared by conventional solid-phase sintering method, with the piezoelectric constant d33 (>170pC/N), dielectric loss tgδ≤0.5% and mechanical coupling coefficient Kp≥0.34.

Barium titanate lead-free piezoelectric ceramics are important basic materials for the development of modern science and technology, which was widely used in the manufacture of ultrasonic transducers, underwater acoustic transducers, electroacoustic transducers, ceramic filters, ceramic transformers, ceramic frequency discriminators, high voltage generators, infrared detectors, surface acoustic wave devices, electro-optic devices, ignition and detonation devices, and piezoelectric gyroscope and so on.

Application: military, ocean, fishery, scientific research, mine detection, daily life and other fields.


China Patent No.: ZL 2011 1 0126758.6

Lead free piezoceramic


Material: Lead-free Barium Titanate Piezoelectric Material with Addition of Cobalt and Aluminum





Typical value of lead free piezoelectric ceramic BaTiO3

Lead free piezo material BaTiO3 Lead-free Material
Properties BaTiO3
Dielectric Constant ɛTr3 1260
Coupling factor KP 0.34
K31 0.196
K33 0.43
Kt 0.32
Piezoelectric coefficient d31 10-12m/v -60
d33 10-12m/v 160
g31 10-3vm/n -5.4
g33 10-3vm/n 14.3
Frequency coefficients Np 3180
N1 2280
N3
Nt 2675
Elastic compliance coefficient Se11 10-12m2/n 8.4
Machanical quality factor Qm 1200
Dielectric loss factor Tg δ % 0.5
Density ρ g/cm3 5.6
Curie Temperature Tc °C 115
Young's modulus YE11 <109N/m3 119
Poison Ratio 0.33







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